Orphism is an artistic movement that emerged in France in the 1910s and was inspired by the poem "Orphée" by Guillaume Apollinaire published in 1908. It is characterized by the use of geometric forms and vibrant colors, often used abstractly, in order to create a sense of energy and dynamism. The main artists associated with this movement are Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, and Francis Picabia. Orphism had a significant influence on modern and contemporary art, particularly on the Futurist movement in Italy and the Lyrical Abstraction movement in France. It also influenced many artists worldwide, including Kazimir Malevich in Russia. The movement continued to be a significant force in art until the 1950s and was rediscovered and reevaluated by art historians and critics in the 1960s and 1970s. In comparing Orphism to Cubism, it is important to note that Orphism is inspired by Analytic Cubism and takes up its use of abstraction and flatness of space. However, unlike Cubism which is inspired by external objects, Orphism draws its inspiration from light itself and uses vibrant, warm colors to create dynamics and forms. By using color to produce forms rather than lines, Orphism opposes traditional painting which favors lines to represent empirical reality. Orphism is also known for paving the way for the theory that each plastic element can produce a specific sense effect.
Sonia Delaunay was a French artist from the early 20th century, known as one of the first female artists to join the abstraction movement. Born on November 14, 1885 in Gradizhsk, Ukraine, Sonia Delaunay immigrated to France with her family in 1892. She studied at the School of Fine Arts and the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, where she met her future husband, artist Robert Delaunay. Throughout her career, Sonia Delaunay explored many styles and techniques, including Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism. She is best known for her abstract works, including her "Simultanéisme" and "Chromo-dynamisme" paintings, which were influenced by her husband's theories on color. She was also a pioneer in the use of color in fashion and design, creating clothing and home accessories. In addition to her artistic career, Sonia Delaunay taught and held workshops at several institutions, including the Académie de la Grande Chaumière and the École nationale supérieure des arts décoratifs. She also organized numerous exhibitions of her work in France and abroad. She passed away on December 5, 1979 in Paris. Her works are exhibited in museums worldwide and she is considered one of the most important and influential artists of all time. Her contribution to abstraction and the use of color in art and design is undeniable.